Google and Apple offer value to developers who develop for Android and iOS.
What is a brand value?
Brand is a word which represents customer point of view. If customer does not see the brand as valuable to them, she will not be interested in it. Without interest from the customer there is no brand. So brand values are the building blocks of a brand.
Is there a negative value?
In competition brands do not have only one customer. Different customers can be consumers, retailers, distributors, employees, investors. All of them need different values from a single brand. In some cases values offered to one customer are seen as negative values by another.
Competitors can see value in a another competitor brand. A brand is able to use failure of a competitor to promote itself. Lower quality brand in a category will help other brands with higher quality.
We can not purchase a perfect brand which has no negative values. For example, if we buy fashion made in a sweatshop, we buy it because it is affordable and well designed, but with that purchase we support the sweatshops. This means we are not given a chance to be socially responsible. In this case fashion brand offers value to its investors or another customer, and takes a risk to not make a perfect product. So negative value is a point of view.
From perspective of a single customer brand is never perfect and has negative values. Brands must offer value to many customers which can be in conflict between them and this is unavoidable.
Unique values are most important
Most values that brand offers are also offered by other brands. These values are called shared values. Values offered only by one brand are unique values. These values drive the business and will be under attack from competitors. If a customer can only get specific value from one brand, they will only purchase from that brand. No other brand will exist for them.
Goal of every business is to offer unique value to their customers.